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Dynomotion wiki

Welcome to our wiki where you can find and share knowledge on Dynomotion's systems.  To begin adding information to this wiki, simply create an account, verify your email, and start editing (click pencil icon). To make editing pages easier for everyone, we have installed a visual editor by default.  This visual editor allows you to edit a wiki page much like you would a standard word processing document.  For the seasoned wiki editors, standard MediaWiki editing may also be used.

Warning: Use at your own risk.  Information is for example purposes only and may contain errors.  It is up to the User to verify the information is correct and is safe to use. In no case will any contributor or Dynomotion be liable for incorrect information.  Dynomotion reserves the right to modify or delete any contributions.

Thanks for Contributing!

Official Dynomotion Site

Editing and Creating Wiki Pages

Unintuitively, you first create a link to the page you want to make before you can make the page.  To make a new page: while editing, right-click where you want your link to be, insert a link with a descriptive title and link text, save the page, click on the link you created, then click on "Empty Page" to begin editing your new page.

Here are a few other quick tips:

  • You can insert links or images by Right-Clicking with the mouse on the line where you want the link or image to appear.
  • For Spell Correction you can use Ctrl-Right-Click. 
  • To insert a YouTube Video use an EmbedVideo command such as  {{#ev:youtube|xxxxx}} with xxxxx changed to the Video ID.
  • Choose a descriptive page name and link text when creating a new page: e.g. Not "My Machine", but rather "Brand X Three Axis Milling Machine Retrofit"
  • Create pages in an organized manner: Describe what the page is about, create clear sections that flow

For more information:

How to create a new wiki page

How to Edit and insert Media into your wiki pages

Dynomotion Software Topics

Installation Topics

KMotion.exe Executive Software Topics

KMotion.exe is the main program that is used to configure settings in KFLOP, initialize axes, and to write C programs to configure and setup KFLOP to control your system. In this program you can plot step response, test movement, view Bode plots, monitor I/O, set filter parameters, and generally set the pertinent parameters.

Configuration Topics

Channels, Channels, Channels what are they?

Read Article Here

How to Setup Backlash Compensation

Read Article Here

KMotionCNC Software Topics

KMotionCNC is Dynomotion's CNC program used as a graphical user interface to your KFLOP-enabled machine tool. KMotionCNC has all of the basic functionality you need to run a machine of up to 6 axes, in addition to spindle control.

  • Insert pages for other KMotionCNC-related general topics here

Using KMotionCNC

  • Homing discussion - page to be created
  • Insert other KMotionCNC use pages here

Internal/concave Path Tool Radius Compensation Example G41/G42

Known KMotionCNC CAD/CAM Post Processors

Invoking C Programs with Execute Only for previously Downloaded Programs

Customize KMotionCNC

KMotionCNC is written as a Windows C++ MFC (Microsoft Foundation Classes) program developed in Visual Studio.  Source code is provided and may be customized using Visual Studio.  MFC Support is a requirement. 

General Information
Compiling KMotionCNC
The KMotionCNC's Visual Studio Project Solution (\PC VC Programs\KMotionCNC\KMotionCNC.sln) is currently written for Visual Studio 2008 Standard.  This version can be used for the simplest compatibility.  Projects can be upgraded to newer version of VS with minimal effort.  Including Microsoft's Free Visual Studio 2013 Community.  More info on PC Example Applications.
Note Test Versions 4.34a and later have project solutions targeted for Visual Studio 2015 Community which is free for most Users.
KMotionCNC Customization Examples and Applications
Links to examples of projects that explain KMotionCNC customizations
Troy (tmday7) created some helpful documents listed on the Yahoo Group Files Section here.

PC Example Applications

A number of PC Applications using the KMotion Libraries are available in the Software download.  Visual Studio should be used to modify/compile the applications. 

Currently the projects are compatible with VS 2008 Standard but later Versions can upgrade the projects and can be used including the free Microsoft Version of VS 2013 Community.  In some cases MFC capability needs to be added as a separate download.

Note All the projects in KMotion Versions 4.34a and later have now been updated and should work out-of-the-box with VS2015.

More information.

KMotion Libraries - GCode Interpreter - Trajectory Planner - Coordinated Motion - .NET

The KMotion Libraries are a series of DLLs (Dynamic Link Libraries) that reside on the PC that contain the common core motion control, I/O, and communication functionality for KFLOP.  These libraries permit PC Applications to be built using high level control without being concerned with the underlying details of Interpreting GCode, Trajectory Planning, Coordinated Motion, Motion Buffering, USB Communication, etc.

More information.

KFLOP C Programs

C Programs provide a powerful and flexible capability to perform almost any sequence of operations within KFLOP.   In most cases after you have tested and tuned all your hardware using the KMotion.exe setup program all the settings and initialization steps required for your system can be placed into an Initialization C Program so that your system can be fully initialized simply by executing the Initialization program.

More Information


Modbus can be connected to the PC or directly to KFLOP.  A PC connection will not be deterministically real-time but may work for basic speed control and on/off.  Here is a related Thread for interfacing KMotionCNC to Modbus using a free utility.

To connect Modbus directly to KFLOP's UART see the C Examples in \C Programs\RS232\ModBus\

Dynomotion Hardware Topics

General Hardware Information

KFLOP Hardware Info

KStep Hardware Info

Kanalog Hardware Info

SnapAmp Hardware Info

Konnect Hardware Info

Wiring Diagrams

Basic Kanalog DAC and Encoder Connections 3 Axis

Basic Kanalog DAC and Encoder Connections 3 Axis #2

KFLOP+SnapAmp DC Brush Motors with MPG

KFLOP JP5 Open Collector Step/Dir Connections to Power Step PSD5042-2P Drives

KFLOP+KStep with VFD and NPN Limit Switches for Matrika Rev1

Touch Plate Wiring to Konnect

Wiring Topics

Place links to pages on wiring inputs and outputs specific to your experiences and projects.  Be descriptive with page titles and links.

MPG Wiring and Interface

MPGs (Manual Pulse Generators) should be connected directly to KFLOP for guaranteed real-time response (not USB based or connected to the PC).  MPGs are handled by a C Program that monitors the MPG and creates motion based on the MPG Encoder changes and switch selections for axis, speed, and so forth.  See the MPG C Program Examples.  Here is a Discussion with other links.

MPG4 from cnc4pc.jpg

Axes Servo Tuning and Trajectory Planner

Velocity, Acceleration, and Jerk

The Velocity, Acceleration, and Jerk in the Step Response Screen (KFLOP parameter settings) and the Acceleration and Velocity in the KMotionCNC | Tool Setup | Trajectory Planner | Axis Parameters are both used for different things.  The two sets of parameters are independent. 
The KFLOP parameters are used for 3rd order motions.   These include things like:  Jogging, Homing, and GCode Rapids (G0).  The units in KFLOP are in counts or steps.

The KMotionCNC parameters are used for 2nd order (infinite Jerk) coordinated motion paths.  These are GCode G1,G2,G3 continuous paths.  The units are in Inches (or in some cases degrees).   Note there is an Option in KMotionCNC "Rapids as Feeds" where these parameters will also be used for Rapids.  But this option should only be used for highly non-linear Kinematic Systems which can not take advantage of faster/smoother 3rd order point to point straight line Rapids.

Tests to find and verify optimal settings for both types of moves should be made using the Step Response Screen.  Optimal settings are usually determined by experimentation.  Although it might be possible to calculate the settings based on motor torque gains, back-emf, amplifier voltage/current, mass, moments of inertia, friction, encoder resolution, leadscrew pitch, required following accuracy, etc... It is often too complicated and with too many unknowns to be practical.  So experimental moves can be tested at ever increasing Velocities, Accelerations, and Jerks until the system is unable to follow the trajectory without having too much error or shock to the system.  After absolute limits of the system are determined then the settings should be backed off by some amount to provide operating margins (ie 20%).

It is usually best to first determine max possible velocity using a relatively low acceleration. Maximum power is usually required at the point of the trajectory where velocity is high and still accelerating.  Supply Voltage limitations tend to limit velocity.  Current limitations tend to limit acceleration.


The Step Response Screen always performs 3rd order motion but 2nd order motion can be simulated by temporarily setting the Jerk to a huge value (1000X the acceleration value).  In general reducing the Jerk value will result in longer times to perform motions, but often the improved smoothness will permit higher maximum accelerations and velocities to be used resulting in overall shorter motion times.  An analogy might be how you might stop more quickly in a car, without skidding or spilling your coffee, by applying the brakes harder in a more gradual manner rather than slamming on the brakes.

Make sure when testing the size of move is long enough for full acceleration and velocity are achieved.  A common mistake is to have Acceleration or Velocity Settings set to too high for your system but when testing a short move there is no indication of a problem.  The plot mode of Velocity Output  vs Time can be helpful to verify full Velocity is being achieved.

The idea is that a motor axis has torque and speed limitations and you should determine and understand what they both are for your system. Available motor torque drops off with higher speed. At some speed the motor will not even be able to generate any torque at all. Motor torque is required to accelerate the axis. We need to make sure that no combination of velocity and acceleration will ever cause the axis to fault/stall/fail. So there is often a complex set of speeds and accelerations that will work ok that form an envelope of workable speed and acceleration. So one nice thing to know is top speed possible. It is like taking your car out on a long straight highway and gradually accelerating to find the max speed is 100MPH. You will then know that ever attempting a speed over 100MPH will always fail. Also speed should probably be limited to something like 80MPH to allow for margin and to allow reasonable acceleration up to that speed. The reason for performing the top speed test at low acceleration is to avoid a failure because of not being able to accelerate at the specified rate. So we want to set the acceleration to a low value so it will not be a limiting factor when determining top speed. However if we set the acceleration so low with a short trip distance we will never go very fast and the speed test will be meaningless. This should be avoided. Change the Plot type to Velocity, Output, vs Time to clearly see if this is the case.  You may want to turn off Measured Velocity if it obscures viewing the Commanded Velocity

For example to accelerate to 700,000 counts/sec at an acceleration rate of 700,000 counts/sec^2 would take 1 second. And then to slow back down would take 1 more second. So at least 2 seconds of motion would be required to get to full speed. A 100,000 count move (2 inches for a system with 50,000 counts/inch) takes much less time than that. Furthermore with a relatively low Jerk setting (1e6). This means the acceleration will be applied gradually over 0.7 seconds. This means an even much longer time and distance would be required to achieve top speed.

Here is the method to follow to find 2nd/3rd order motion profile limits:
(note every system is different and will vary based on resolution, motor size/type, mass, etc...)

1 - Find Max Velocity at low Acceleration and infinite Jerk

Choose a Velocity to test (ie V=100000 counts/sec)
Set a moderately low Acceleration Time of 1 second (A = V/1sec = 100000 counts/sec^2)
Set very high Jerk so Acceleration is applied almost instantaneously in 0.001 sec (J = A/0.001sec = 1e8 counst/sec^3)
Test a very long move 20 inches if possible (for resolution 50000 counts/inch, 1,000,000 counts)
Plot Velocity, Output, vs time to see if V is actually obtained
If the motion was successful repeat all above with higher V, if not try lower V

Once Max V is found reduce by some margin (ie 20-50%)

Note you may decide on lower speed for other reasons (safety, vibration, noise, wobble, shock, etc....)

2 - Find Max Acceleration for your system for the chosen Velocity

Using the V found above increase A (keeping Jerk high in the same manner) until the system fails/faults/excessive shock, etc...

Once Max A is found reduce by some margin (ie 20-50%)

These V and A Values are now known good values for your system and can be used for 2nd order motions such as KMotionCNC Trajectory Planner or Mach3 Motor tuning. Note units will need to be converted (counts to inches or mm, time from seconds to minutes depending on the App)

3 - Find optimal 3rd order Jerk limited motions.

The previous result from Step #1 and #2 used nearly infinite Jerk where Acceleration forces were applied nearly instantaneously. By reducing Jerk smoother motion should be possible.

Set Jerk so it is applied over 20ms (ie for A=200000 J = A/0.020 = 1e7

Test to see if motions are smoother. With closed loop systems the Position Error Plot can be used to see if the motion has less error and is smoother. Open loop system will require you to hear the difference.

Increase/decrease Jerk to find the optimal value. Note reducing Jerk a lot will of course make the system very smooth, but will also be much slower using less acceleration and velocity which is undesirable. So the highest Jerk possible should be found that still provides some smoothness.

Reducing Jerk only will always make the system slower with less performance (but hopefully significantly smoother). It is usually then possible to increase Acceleration and Velocity somewhat to achieve even higher performance than what was possible with infinite Jerk while being as smooth or smoother.

4 - Reduce Max Following Error Limit to small value

Now that the system is properly tuned and reasonable Acceleration, Velocity, and Jerk are set the motor Position should always follow the commanded Destinations accurately with only small errors.  By Plotting Position Errors under various conditions (Distances) you can get an idea of the worst case following errors under normal conditions.  The Max Following Error Parameter should be set to a value slightly larger than the worst case following error (ie 20~50% larger).  In this case if anything abnormal occurs: ie. The axis hits an obstacle, commanded at too high of a speed, servo goes unstable, hardware/electronics failure, a Following Error will be immediately detected and the axes disabled.

Axis Resolution - counts/inch (or counts/mm)

Its important to understand the resolution of your Axis which is the number of fundamental raw motor/driver encoder counts or motor steps per standard unit of distance (inch or mm).  Although tuning in KMotion.exe Step Response Screen and motions within KFLOP typically use units of raw counts or steps it is important to know how these translate to real-world distances, speeds, etc...  Later, applications such as KMotionCNC or Mach3 will need this information to scale motions properly.
There are usually a number of factors that combine together to determine the Axis Resolution.  These might include:
  • counts or steps per motor revolution
  • any gearing or belts and pulleys involved between motor and drive mechanisms
  • lead screw pitch, rack and pinion tooth pitch, drive belt radius, etc.

For example consider a Stepper Drive with:

3200 steps per motor rev

2:1 gear reduction from motor to lead screw

0.2 inch lead screw pitch

Axis Resolution = 3200 step/motor rev x (2 motor rev/ screw rev)  / (0.2 inch / screw rev) = 32000 steps/inch

To determine whether your assumptions and calculations are correct perform a test.  Command as large of a move as convenient and measure the actual distance moved with a ruler.   For example in the axis described above you might command a move of 320000 steps.  This should result in a motion of:

320000 steps / (32000 steps/inch) = 10 inches.

For KMotionCNC set the Axis Resolution in the Tool Setup | Trajectory Planner Screen | Axis Parameters | cnts/inch.  Note units must be in units of inches.  If your resolution is in mm units multiply by 25.4.

For Mach3 enter the Axis Resolution in the Configuration | Motor Tuning Screen.  Make sure the setup units (not GCode units) match the mode of your values.

Servo Dither/Hunting - (oscillation around zero error)

Servos have high accuracy because they are always actively trying to make corrections and drive the error to zero.  Unfortunately this can sometimes cause annoying dither or position hunting around zero when not moving.  This is a very complex non-linear effect dependent on the dynamics of the mechanics.  Because of the highly non-linear quantization effects of single "steps" in the encoder position, stiction, backlash, etc. it follows different rules and is harder to analyze than normal servo tuning/stability in the larger magnitude more linear regime.  For example attempting to apply "Damping" is unlikely to work.

Lowering gains will usually help at the expense of performance.  However in many cases more than acceptable performance can be achieved with lower gains so one should consider if the higher gains are really needed.

KFLOP has a Deadband Gain and Range feature that can basically be used to tell the servo to not attempt to correct small errors (treat the errors as zero), or to try to correct them less aggressively (with a Gain less than 1.0).  See here for more information

Unfortunately adding Deadband doesn't always help the servo "sit still" and may actually increase the size of the dither depending on the dynamics.

Note that when the servo is commanded to a non integer position ie 999999.7 encoder counts without deadband the servo will always be making corrections.  The best the servo can do is dither between encoder positions 999999.0 and 1000000.0.  With an error of either -0.7 or +0.3.  A servo with Integrator gain will guarantee the average is 999999.7

If dither is still a major problem a C Program might be used to monitor things and change settings under certain conditions to reduce dither.  See the example AntiServoDither__ALL.c which monitors for small errors for a period of time and if so reduces or turns off Integrator gain.

Noisy GCode - Trajectory Planner Smoothing

An analysis of Quantization Noise in GCode and Trajectory Planner Settings to generate smooth motion.
GCode Noisy Path.png

Bode Plots

A Bode Plot is a powerful tool for characterizing and providing insight into a dynamic system. It can help determine closed loop stability, bandwidth/performance, resonant frequencies, and more. It is entirely based on the system being linear. Linear in the sense that if the amplitude of some input signal is changed then the output signal will change proportionally as well. Unfortunately most systems are not entirely linear. Stiction, backlash, encoder quantization, amplifier saturation, and other effects are non-linear. For example driving a system with a signal too small to overcome stiction will result in no output at all whereas a larger signal will result in some output. This is clearly non-linear behavior. It would be nice to use a technique that handles non-linear systems but basically none are known.

A Bode Plot is made injecting a stimulus to the system and observing how the system responds. For the reasons of non-linearity it is very important to perform a Bode Plot measurement using a representative level of stimulus similar to what the system will actually have during normal operation. If the Stimulus is not adjusted properly the result is likely to be completely invalid. Additionally the system should be reasonably tuned and stable so that it is responding in a reasonable way to the stimulus. If the system is unstable or very poorly tuned the result is likely to be completely invalid.

You might think of it somewhat like shaking a box to determine what is in it. You should shake it with enough intensity and at frequencies to get some reaction, but not so high of intensity to break or distort the object inside.

To create a Bode Plot use the KMotion.exe Bode Plot Screen. First select Plot: Time domain - Command, Position, Output vs Time and adjust the Amplitude and cutoff Freq until there is small but significant Position (red) changes (ie 50 encoder counts), at a frequency low enough that the Position at least somewhat attempts to follow the Command (blue), and where the Output (green) is not near saturation for the Drive being used.

After the Stimulus/Noise Injection settings are set switch to Plot: Open Loop - Magnitude and Phase vs Frequency. Set the number of Samples to average (ie 20) and perform a Measurement.  See here for more information.

Problems and Resolutions


  • Dealing with noise on inputs.  If you experience issues with inputs misreading, the issue may be noise.  This page provides examples on what might be causing noise issues and examples of how to possibly deal with noise.
  • Other

Software-Specific Problems and Resolutions

  • Place links to pages explaining resolutions to problems that are largely software-related here

Hardware-Specific Problems and Resolutions

  • Place links to pages explaining resolutions to problems that are largely hardware-related

Step/Dir Drives loose 2 Steps for each pair of Direction Reversals

Applications and Projects

  • Place links to pages that explain how you accomplished your particular project.  Write clear explanations that provide background on what you did and how you did it.

Tool Changer - router linear 4 Tools - C Program

Part Zero & Tool Height Touch Plate

Driving Hobby Servos


HiTec Type

International and other Languages